Architecture and characterization of a calibrator for PMUs operating in power distribution systems
In recent years, the Phasor Measurement Unit (PMU) technology is rapidly evolving towards the potential deployment also in power distribution systems (DSs). In general, this specific field of applications requires PMUs whose accuracy levels are beyond those required by the IEEE Std. C37.118. Additionally, there is the need to define the architecture of an associated calibration system capable to assess the metrological performances of these devices. In this paper, we first analyse the impact of the uncertainties (in term of phase and magnitude) introduced by arbitrary PMUs on a state estimation (SE) process performed on the IEEE 13-bus distribution test feeder. The outcomes of this analysis are used to infer the most stringent steady-state performances of PMUs for DSs monitoring and, consequently, to define the requirements and the hardware archi- tecture of a PMU calibrator presently developed at the Author’s laboratories. A preliminary metrological characterization of the proposed calibrator is presented in the paper.