Solar disinfection modeling and post-irradiation response of Escherichia coil in wastewater
In this work, an intensive assessment of solar disinfection of secondary wastewater was elaborated in controlled laboratory conditions. Batch tests of Escherichia coil-spiked synthetic secondary effluent, at nine different constant intensity levels, were followed by a 48-h dark storage. Solar disinfection was monitored in half-hourly intervals demonstrating distinct phases of lag followed by sharp inactivation. The results were fit to a shoulder log-linear and a Weibull distribution model. The solar-driven inactivation, the latency period and the effective disinfection time (for 4-log reduction) were correlated properly with the applied irradiance, resulting in a common, standardized dose for all intensities. Evolution of bacterial response in the dark was monitored for 48 h, and was in each case characterized as growth or decay. Also, the energy threshold, which was able to shift post-irradiation behavior from growth to decay, was analytically studied. In all intensity levels, this standard was approximately constant, as an effective bacteriostatic dose (EBD). Finally, similar dose-related disinfection and regrowth effects were observed, suggesting compliance with the reciprocity law, with minor deviations. (C) 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.