Back-Contacted Silicon Heterojunction Solar Cells: Optical-Loss Analysis and Mitigation
We analyze the optical losses that occur in interdigitated back-contacted amorphous/crystalline silicon heterojunction solar cells. We show that in our devices, the main loss mechanisms are similar to those of two-side contacted heterojunction solar cells. These include reflection and escape-light losses, as well as parasitic absorption in the front passivation layers and rear contact stacks. We then provide practical guidelines to mitigate such reflection and parasitic absorption losses at the front side of our solar cells, aiming at increasing the short-circuit current density in actual devices. Applying these rules, we processed a back-contacted silicon heterojunction solar cell featuring a short-circuit current density of 40.9 mA/cm(2) and a conversion efficiency of 22.0%. Finally, we show that further progress will require addressing the optical losses occurring at the rear electrodes of the back-contacted devices.