Orthogonal differential vector signaling

Using a transformation based at least in part on a non-simple orthogonal or unitary matrix, data may be transmitted over a data bus in a manner that is resilient to one or more types of signal noise, that does not require a common reference at the transmission and acquisition points, and/or that has a pin-efficiency that is greater than 50% and may approach that of single-ended signaling. Such transformations may be implemented in hardware in an efficient manner. Hybrid transformers that apply such transformations to selected subsets of signals to be transmitted may be used to adapt to various signal set sizes and/or transmission environment properties including noise and physical space requirements of given transmission environments.


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