A Hardware-in-the-Loop test platform for the performance assessment of a PMU-based Real-Time State Estimator for Active Distribution Networks
The paper describes the development of a Hardware- in-the-Loop (HIL) test platform for the performance assessment of a PMU-based sub-second linear Real-Time State Estimator (RTSE) for Active Distribution Networks (ADNs). The estimator relies on the availability of data coming from Phasor Measurement Units (PMUs) and can be applied to both balanced and unbalanced ADNs. The paper first illustrates the architecture of the experimental HIL setup that has been fully designed by the Authors. It consists of a Real-Time Simulator (RTS) that models the electrical network model as well as the measurement infrastructure composed by virtual PMUs. These virtual devices stream their data to a real Phasor Data Concentrator (PDC) suitably coupled with a Discrete Kalman Filter State Estimator (DKF-SE). By using this experimental setup, the paper discusses the performance assessment of the whole process in terms of estimation accuracy and time latencies. In the RTS, a real ADN located in the Netherlands has been modeled together with the associated PMUs.