Contribution to the design methodologies of piled raft foundations under combined loadings
Although simplified methods have been proposed to allow for group effect and soil-pile-raft interaction, most of them are concentrated on one type of loading rendering the applicability of these methods rather limited to cases under such loads. In the case of a Combined Pile Raft Foundation (CPRF) the structural loads are carried partly by the piles and partly by the raft as a function of the foundation settlement rendering the CPRF a complex soil-structure interaction issue. Despite the recent development of computational resources and the advances in numerical expertise, a detailed 3-D numerical analysis, accounting for soil nonlinearities, non-linear behavior of interfaces between the soil, the piles and the raft under various combinations of loadings remains practically exhaustive. The objective of this paper is to provide a rather simplified and straightforward design methodology for pile foundations under combined loadings. To achieve this goal, previous research works on the group effect under axial and lateral loading have been evaluated and the piles-raft interaction effect has been considered. The proposed procedure is fully compatible with structural software codes and can be straightforwardly applied for the design of the structural members, since it is able to effectively solve a CPRF under numerous combinations of loadings required by most design codes.