Hardware security concerns such as IP piracy and hardware Trojans have triggered research into circuit protection and malicious logic detection from various design perspectives. In this paper, emerging technologies are investigated by leveraging their unique properties for applications in the hardware security domain. Five example circuit structures including camouflaging gates, polymorphic gates, current/voltage based circuit protectors and current-based XOR logic are designed to prove the high efficiency of Silicon NanoWire FETs and Graphene SymFET in applications such as circuit protection and IP piracy prevention. Simulation results indicate that highly efficient and secure circuit structures can be achieved via the use of emerging technologies.