On solving LPN using BKW and variants Implementation and Analysis
The Learning Parity with Noise problem (LPN) is appealing in cryptography as it is considered to remain hard in the post-quantum world. It is also a good candidate for lightweight devices due to its simplicity. In this paper we provide a comprehensive analysis of the existing LPN solving algorithms, both for the general case and for the sparse secret scenario. In practice, the LPN-based cryptographic constructions use as a reference the security parameters proposed by Levieil and Fouque. But, for these parameters, there remains a gap between the theoretical analysis and the practical complexities of the algorithms we consider. The new theoretical analysis in this paper provides tighter bounds on the complexity of LPN solving algorithms and narrows this gap between theory and practice. We show that for a sparse secret there is another algorithm that outperforms BKW and its variants. Following from our results, we further propose practical parameters for different security levels.