Sawtooth control in JET with ITER relevant low field side resonance ion cyclotron resonance heating and ITER-like wall
New experiments at JET with the ITER-like wall show for the first time that ITER-relevant low field side resonance first harmonic ion cyclotron resonance heating (ICRH) can be used to control sawteeth that have been initially lengthened by fast particles. In contrast to previous (Graves et al 2012 Nat. Commun. 3 624) high field side resonance sawtooth control experiments undertaken at JET, it is found that the sawteeth of L-mode plasmas can be controlled with less accurate alignment between the resonance layer and the sawtooth inversion radius. This advantage, as well as the discovery that sawteeth can be shortened with various antenna phasings, including dipole, indicates that ICRH is a particularly effective and versatile tool that can be used in future fusion machines for controlling sawteeth. Without sawtooth control, neoclassical tearing modes (NTMs) and locked modes were triggered at very low normalised beta. High power H-mode experiments show the extent to which ICRH can be tuned to control sawteeth and NTMs while simultaneously providing effective electron heating with improved flushing of high Z core impurities. Dedicated ICRH simulations using SELFO, SCENIC and EVE, including wide drift orbit effects, explain why sawtooth control is effective with various antenna phasings and show that the sawtooth control mechanism cannot be explained by enhancement of the magnetic shear. Hybrid kinetic-magnetohydrodynamic stability calculations using MISHKA and HAGIS unravel the optimal sawtooth control regimes in these ITER relevant plasma conditions.