Exclusion of metal oxide by an RF sputtered Ti layer in flexible perovskite solar cells: energetic interface between a Ti layer and an organic charge transporting layer
In this work, the effects of a titanium (Ti) layer on the charge transport and recombination rates of flexible perovskite solar cells were studied. Ti as an efficient barrier layer was deposited directly on PET-ITO flexible substrates through RF magnetic sputtering using a Ti-source and a pressure of similar to 5 mTorr. A Ti coated PET-ITO was used for the fabrication of a flexible perovskite solar cell without using any metal oxide layer. The fabricated flexible perovskite solar cell was composed of a PET-ITO/Ti/perovskite (CH3NH3PbI3)/organic hole transport layer of 2,2',7,7'-tetrakis [N, N'-di-p-methoxyphenylamine]-9,9'-spirobifluorene (spiro-OMeTAD)-Li-TFSI/Ag. A high conversion efficiency of similar to 8.39% along with a high short circuit current (J(SC)) of similar to 15.24 mA cm(-2), an open circuit voltage (V-OC) of similar to 0.830 V and a high fill factor (FF) of similar to 0.66 was accomplished by the fabricated flexible perovskite solar cell under a light illumination of similar to 100 mW cm(-2) (1.5 AM). Intensity-modulated photocurrent (IMPS)/photovoltage spectroscopy (IMVS) studies demonstrated that the fabricated flexible perovskite solar cell considerably reduced the recombination rate.