This paper presents the design and implementation of a rail-to-rail 460-kS/s 10-bit successive approximation register analog-to-digital converter (ADC) for the power-efficient capacitance measurement. The specifications of ADC are optimized at system level, emphasizing the ADC following a switched-capacitor capacitance-to-voltage (C2V) converter. To be compatible to the output of C2V, a bootstrap switch with body effect reduction is adopted to provide the rail-to-rail processing ability. The charge redistribution converter is implemented by a single-ended cascaded binary-weighted capacitive digital-to-analog converter (DAC). The total area of the DAC array is not only limited by the matching behavior but also by the noise performance of C2V. To relax the settling requirement and improve the power efficiency, self-timing technique is employed which borrows extra half clock period for open-loop settling of preamps. The balance between noise and power consumption of dynamic comparator with preamps is also considered. The ADC circuit was implemented in 0.18-mu m CMOS technology and occupies an active area of 0.18 mm(2). The tested prototype achieves a signal-to-noise-plus-distortion ratio of 54 dB and a spurious-free dynamic range of 68 dB. The integral nonlinearity and differential nonlinearity are 0.5 and 0.34 least-significant-bit, respectively. The total power consumption is 21 mu W corresponding to 110 fJ/conversion-step figure of merit.