Fluence plays a critical role on the subsequent distribution of chemotherapy and tumor growth delay in murine mesothelioma xenografts pre-treated by photodynamic therapy
Background: The pre-conditioning of tumor vessels by low-dose photodynamic therapy (L-PDT) was shown to enhance the distribution of chemotherapy in different tumor types. However, how light dose affects drug distribution and tumor response is unknown. Here we determined the effect of L-PDT fluence on vascular transport in human mesothelioma xenografts. The best L-PDT conditions regarding drug transport were then combined with Lipoplatin (R) to determine tumor response. Methods: Nude mice bearing dorsal skinfold chambers were implanted with H-Meso1 cells. Tumors were treated by Visudyne (R)-mediated photodynamic therapy with 100 mW/cm(2) fluence rate and a variable fluence (5, 10, 30, and 50 J/cm(2)). FITC-Dextran (FITC-D) distribution was assessed in real time in tumor and normal tissues. Tumor response was then determined with best L-PDT conditions combined to Lipoplatin (R) and compared to controls in luciferase expressing H-Meso1 tumors by size and whole body bioluminescence assessment (n = 7/group). Results: Tumor uptake of FITC-D following L-PDT was significantly enhanced by 10-fold in the 10 J/cm(2) but not in the 5, 30, and 50 J/cm(2) groups compared to controls. Normal surrounding tissue uptake of FITC-D following L-PDT was significantly enhanced in the 30 J/cm(2) and 50 J/cm(2) groups compared to controls. Altogether, the FITC-D tumor to normal tissue ratio was significantly higher in the 10 J/cm(2) group compared others. Tumor growth was significantly delayed in animals treated by 10 J/cm2-L-PDT combined to Lipoplatin (R) compared to controls. Conclusions: Fluence of L-PDT is critical for the optimal distribution and effect of subsequently administered chemotherapy. These findings have an importance for the clinical translation of the vascular L-PDT concept in the clinics. Lasers Surg. Med. 47:323-330, 2015. (C) 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.