On Counter-Example Complete Verification for Higher-Order Functions
We present a verification procedure for pure higher-order functional Scala programs with parametric types. We show that our procedure is sound for proofs, as well as sound and complete for counter-examples. The procedure reduces the analysis of higher-order programs to checking satisfiability of a sequence of quantifier-free formulas over theories such as algebraic data types, integer linear arithmetic, and uninterpreted function symbols, thus enabling the use of efficient satisfiability modulo theory (SMT) solvers. Our solution supports arbitrary function types and arbitrarily nested anonymous functions (which can be stored in data structures, passed as arguments, returned, and applied). Among the contributions of this work is supporting even those cases when anonymous functions cannot be statically traced back to their definition, ensuring completeness of the approach for finding counter-examples. We provide a proof of soundness and counter-example completeness for our system as well as initial evaluation in the Leon verifier.