Exciton-Polariton Bose-Einstein Condensates
Exciton-polaritons, mixed light-matter quasiparticles in semiconductors, have recently shown evidence for Bose-Einstein condensation. Some of the properties of condensates of exciton-polaritons are reviewed in this article. We first discuss the spontaneous appearance of long-range order and the way this can be easily accessed in the case of polariton fluids. We show that the Penrose-Onsager criterion is valid even for such a very special case of condensate. We then describe the experiments that allow observation of topological defects in the fluid: quantized vortices, half vortices, and hyperbolic spin vortices. We demonstrate through the comparison with the gross Pitaevskii equation that the appearance and stability of such vortices are linked with the dissipative nature of the condensate together with the presence of disorder. We then briefly summarize the experiments on superfluid behavior of the polaritons at large-enough densities and expand somewhat more on the dynamical behavior of turbulence in the wake of an obstacle, with the appearance of vortex streets. We finally show that the Bogoliubov transformation has been revealed through four-wave mixing experiments.