Luttinger liquid behavior in the alternating spin-chain system copper nitrate
We determine the phase diagram of copper nitrate Cu(NO3)(2)center dot 2.5D(2)O in the context of quantum phase transitions and novel states of matter. We establish this compound as an ideal candidate to study quasi-1D Luttinger liquids, 3D Bose-Einstein-Condensation of triplons, and the crossover between 1D and 3D physics. Magnetocaloric effect, magnetization, and neutron scattering data provide clear evidence for transitions into a Luttinger liquid regime and a 3D long-range ordered phase as a function of field and temperature. Theoretical simulations of this model material allow us to fully establish the phase diagram and to discuss it in the context of dimerized spin systems.