This paper studies the second-order asymptotics of coding rates for the discrete memoryless multiple-access channel (MAC) with a fixed target error probability. Using constant-composition random coding, coded time-sharing, and a variant of Hoeffding's combinatorial central limit theorem, an inner bound on the set of locally achievable second-order coding rates is given for each point on the boundary of the capacity region. It is shown that the inner bound for constant-composition random coding includes that recovered by independent identically distributed random coding, and that the inclusion may be strict. The inner bound is extended to the Gaussian MAC via an increasingly fine quantization of the inputs.