Semantic memory impairment is classically associated with lesion of the anterior temporal lobe. We report the case of a patient with severe semantic knowledge impairment and anterograde amnesia after bilateral ischemic lesion of the fornix and of the basal forebrain following surgical clipping of an aneurysm of the anterior communicating artery. Fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) showed a temporal hypometabolism. Severe semantic impairment is a rare complication after rupture of an anterior communicating artery aneurysm and may result from disconnection of the temporal lobe.