One hundred fold overall sensitivity enhancements for Silicon-29 NMR spectroscopy of surfaces by dynamic nuclear polarization with CPMG acquisition
Dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP) (29)Si solid-state NMR spectra of a hybrid mesoporous silica material impregnated with aqueous biradical solutions have been acquired with cross-polarization (CP) and cross-polarization Carr-Purcell Meiboom-Gill (CP/CPMG) pulse sequences. The integrated intensities (II) and signal to noise ratios (S/N) of the (29)Si solid-state NMR spectra are monitored in order to measure the DNP enhancement factors (epsilon(Si) (CP)) as well as the overall sensitivity enhancement (Sigma(Si) (CP)) available from the combination of DNP and CPMG acquisition. Here, Sigma(Si) (CP) (epsilon(Si) (CP)) ((sic)(Si)) root kappa, where theta(Si) is a factor which quantifies reduction of the NMR signal by paramagnetic effects (quenching) and kappa is the square root of the ratio of nuclear longitudinal relaxation times of the dry material and material impregnated with radical solution. It is found that Sigma(Si) (CP) is always substantially lower than the measured value of epsilon(Si) CP due to paramagnetic effects which reduce the II of the (29)Si CP solid-state NMR spectra at high biradical concentrations. In this system, it is observed that the sample preparation which provides optimal DNP signal enhancement does not provide optimal overall signal enhancement. Notably, optimal signal enhancements are obtained for CPMG acquisition of the (29)Si solid-state NMR spectra when lower radical concentrations are employed due to slower transverse relaxation rates. To the best of our knowledge this is the first study which seeks to quantify the overall sensitivity enhancements available from DNP solid-state NMR experiments.