Infoscience

Thesis

Novel Applications of Nitrous Oxide and Transition Metals for C-C and C-N Bond Formation

This thesis describes novel methods for and investigations into C–C and C–N bond formation reactions. Chapter 1 gives a very brief overview of established strategies for the formation of new C–C bonds in organic synthesis. In chapter 2, a multi‐step one‐pot synthesis is described. Arylalkynes and ethylene are converted to 2‐arylbutadienes by ruthenium catalyzed enyne metathesis. Upon addition of polyhalogenated substrates, the butadienes react in a 1,4‐atom transfer radical addition (ATRA) to yield 1,5‐dichloropen‐2‐enes. These form substituted vinylcyclopropanes via reductive 1,5 dechlorination with magnesium or manganese. Chapter 3 describes a study about two complex organometallic structures that form by reaction of rhodium(III) chloride with tert‐butylacetylene. The reaction products demonstrate the ability of rhodium to mediate various reactions of alkynes such as [2+2+1] cycloadditions, oxidative cleavages and others. Cobalt‐catalyzed reactions for C–C bond formation are reported in chapter 4. In the first part, the focus lies on the putative pre‐catalysts [CoX2(dppe)] (X = Cl, Br, I; dppe = diphenylphosphinoethane), which are used together with a reducing agent (e. g. zinc) in a wide range of C–C bond formation reactions. It is shown that they are, in reality, complex salts of the formula [CoX(dppe)2]2[X3Co(dppe)CoX3]. The second part describes the synthesis and characterization of the complexes [CoX(dppe)(PPh3)] and [CoX(dppe)(η4‐isoprene)]. Without addition of a reducing agent, these cobalt(I) complexes catalyze reactions that are usually accomplished with the catalyst system Co(II)/dppe/Zn. These results provide evidence that the active species in these reactions are indeed Co(I) complexes as supposed. In the fifth chapter, two methods for the use of nitrous oxide (N2O, laughing gas) in organic reactions are described. The challenge of using N2O in synthetic chemistry is to overcome its kinetic inertness. In the oxidative homo‐ and cross‐coupling of Grignard reagents, N2O takes the role of an oxidizing agent. The reactions proceed under mild conditions with copper, iron and cobalt salts as catalysts and exhibit high turnover numbers. The utilization of N2O has advantages compared to established methods with other oxidation agents such as oxygen. Furthermore, a procedure for the synthesis of triazenes from lithium dialkylamides, N2O and Grignard reagents is described. This method enables the synthesis of aryl and alkyl triazenes, but also alkenyl and alkynyl triazenes that are difficult to access via established procedures. Some alkynyl triazenes are selectively cytotoxic against certain cancer cell lines.

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