Effect of Magnesium and Zinc Ions on the Hydration Kinetics of C3S
Impure tricalcium silicate (C3S) in portland cement may contain various foreign ions. These ions can stabilize different polymorphs of C3S at room temperature and may affect its reactivity. In this paper, the effects of magnesium and zinc on the polymorph type, hydration kinetics, and the hydrate morphology of C3S were investigated. The pure C3S has the T1 structure while magnesium and zinc stabilize polymorphs M3 and T2/T3, respectively. The two elements have distinct effects on the hydration kinetics. Zinc increases the maximum heat released. Magnesium increases the hydration peak width. The C-S-H morphology is modified, leading to longer needles in the presence of zinc and thicker needles in the presence of magnesium. Zinc is incorporated into C-S-H, while magnesium is only incorporated slightly, if at all, but rather seems to inhibit nucleation. Implementing experimentally measured parameters for C-S-H nucleation and growth in the ic hydration model captured well the observed changes in hydration kinetics. This supports C-S-H nucleation and growth to be rate controlling in the hydration of C3S.