Real-Time State Estimation of the EPFL-Campus Medium-Voltage Grid by Using PMUs
We describe the real-time monitoring infrastructure of the smart-grid pilot on the EPFL campus. We experimentally validate the concept of a real-time state-estimation for a 20 kV active distribution network. We designed and put into operation the whole infrastructure composed by the following main elements: (1) dedicated PMUs connected on the medium-voltage side of the network secondary substations by means of specific current/voltage transducers; (2) a dedicated communication network engineered to support stringent time limits and (3) an innovative state estimation process for real-time monitoring that incorporates phasor-data concentration and state estimation processes. Special care was taken to make the whole chain resilient to cyber-attacks, equipment failures and power outages. The achieved latency is within 65ms. The refresh rate of the estimated state is 20ms. The real-time visualization of the state estimator output is made publicly available, as well as the historical data (PMU measurements and estimated states). To the best of our knowledge, the work presented here is the first operational system that provides low-latency real-time state estimation by using PMU measurements of a real active distribution network.