000203422 001__ 203422
000203422 005__ 20181203023707.0
000203422 0247_ $$2doi$$a10.1002/cjce.22126
000203422 022__ $$a0008-4034
000203422 037__ $$aARTICLE
000203422 245__ $$aThermo-environomic evaluation of the ammonia production
000203422 269__ $$a2015
000203422 260__ $$aHoboken$$bWiley-Blackwell$$c2015
000203422 336__ $$aJournal Articles
000203422 520__ $$aWithin the global challenge of sustainable energy supply and greenhouse gas emissions mitigation, carbon capture and storage and the deployment of renewable resources are considered as promising solutions. In this study the production of ammonia mainly used in the fertilizer industry and responsible for around 2-3% of the world greenhouse gas emissions is analyzed. Considering natural gas and biomass as a resource and the option of CO2 capture and storage, different process configurations are systematically compared with regard to energy, economic and environmental considerations. A consistent thermo-environonomic optimisation approach combining flowsheeting, process integration techniques, economic performance evaluation, life cycle assessment and multi-objective optimisation is applied for the conceptual process design and competitiveness evaluation. It is highlighted that the quality of the process integration is a key factor for improving the performance by valorizing the heat excess through electricity cogeneration. Including CO2 mitigation in the ammonia production allows to reduce the emissions, but leads to a slight efficiency decrease due to the energy consumption for the CO2 compression. For the natural gas fed process yielding an energy efficiency around 65%, the overall life cycle emissions can be reduced to 0.79kgCO2/kgNH3 with CO2 capture compared to 1.6kgCO2/kgNH3 without capture. Considering the biogenic nature of the carbon in the biomass, the emissions drop to -1.79kgCO2/kgNH3 for the biomass process having an energy efficiency of 50%. The economic competitiveness highly depends on the resource price and the introduction of a carbon tax. This study reveals the potential of the decarbonisation of the fertilizer industry. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved
000203422 6531_ $$aAmmonia
000203422 6531_ $$abiomass
000203422 6531_ $$aCO2 capture
000203422 6531_ $$aenergy integration
000203422 6531_ $$aprocess design
000203422 700__ $$aTock, Laurence
000203422 700__ $$aMaréchal, François
000203422 700__ $$aPerrenoud, Matthieu
000203422 773__ $$j93$$k2$$q356-362$$tThe Canadian Journal of Chemical Engineering
000203422 8564_ $$s842099$$uhttps://infoscience.epfl.ch/record/203422/files/cjce22126_2014.pdf$$yPostprint$$zPostprint
000203422 909C0 $$0252481$$pIPESE$$xU12691
000203422 909CO $$ooai:infoscience.tind.io:203422$$pSTI$$particle
000203422 917Z8 $$x166530
000203422 917Z8 $$x140973
000203422 917Z8 $$x265046
000203422 917Z8 $$x265046
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000203422 917Z8 $$x140973
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000203422 937__ $$aEPFL-ARTICLE-203422
000203422 973__ $$aEPFL$$rNON-REVIEWED$$sPUBLISHED
000203422 980__ $$aARTICLE