Journal article

A tentative environmental risk assessment of the UV-filters 3-(4-methylbenzylidene-camphor), 2-ethyl-hexyl-4-trimethoxycinnamate, benzophenone-3, benzophenone-4 and 3-benzylidene camphor

UV-filters are increasingly used in cosmetics and in the protection of materials against UV-irradiation. The widespread occurrence of UV-filter residues in aquatic systems has been reported, but still little is known about their environmental effects. Some of these compounds negatively interact with the hormone system of fish, resulting in decreased fecundity and reproduction. Here we report on acute and chronic effects of UV-filters 3-(4-methylbenzylidene-camphor) (4MBC), 2-ethyl-hexyl-4-trimethoxycinnamate (EHMC), benzophenone-3 (BP3) and benzophenone-4 (BP4) on Daphnia magna. The acute toxicity increased with log Pow of the compound. The LC50 values (48 h) of 4MBC, EHMC, BP3 and BP4 were 0.56, 0.29, 1.9 and 50 mg/L, respectively. A tentative preliminary environmental risk assessment (ERA) based on a limited set of data indicates that individual UV-filters should undergo further ecotoxicological analysis, as an environmental risk cannot be ruled out. Consequently new data on the environmental occurrence and the effects of UV-filters are needed for a more accurate ERA. When regarded as a mixture occurring in surface waters they may pose a risk for sensitive aquatic organisms. © 2009 Elsevier Ltd.


Related material