Water Saving and Energy Reduction through Pressure Management in Urban Water Distribution Networks
Water shortages and climate change are worldwide issues. Reduction in water leakage in distribution networks as well as the associated energy saving and environmental impacts have recently received increased attention by scientists and water industries. Pressure management has been proposed as a cost-effective approach for reduction in water leakage. This study conducted a real-world water pressure regulation experiment to establish the pressure-leakage relationship in a district metering area (DMA) of the water distribution network in Beijing, China. Results showed that flow into the DMA was sensitive to inlet water pressure. A 5.6 m reduction in inlet pressure (from 38.8 m to 33.2 m) led to an 83 % reduction (12.1 l/s) in minimal night flow, which is a good approximator of leakage. These reductions resulted in 62,633 m(3) of water saved every year for every km pipe, as well as associated savings of 1.1 x 10(6) MJ of energy and 68 t of CO2 equivalent greenhouse gas emissions. The results of this study provide decision makers with advice for reducing leakage in water distribution networks with associated energy and environmental benefits.