Journal article

VENUS-LEVIS and its spline-Fourier interpolation of 3D toroidal magnetic field representation for guiding-centre and full-orbit simulations of charged energetic particles

Curvilinear guiding-centre drift and full-orbit equations of motion are presented as implemented in the code{VENUS-LEVIS} code. A dedicated interpolation scheme based on Fourier reconstruction in the toroidal and poloidal direction and cubic spline in the radial direction of flux coordinate systems is detailed. This interpolation method exactly preserves the order of the RK4 integrating scheme which is crucial for the investigation of fast particle trajectories in 3D magnetic structures such as helical saturated tokamak plasma states, stellarator geometry and resonant magnetic perturbations (RMP). The initialisation of particles with respect to the guiding-centre is discussed. Two approaches to implement RMPs in orbit simulations are presented, one where the vacuum field is added to the 2D equilibrium, creating islands and stochastic regions, the other considering 3D nested flux-surfaces equilibrium including the RMPs.


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