Aging in the relaxor and ferroelectric state of Fe-doped (1-x)(Bi1/2Na1/2)TiO3-xBaTiO3 piezoelectric ceramics
Aging of piezoelectric properties was investigated in lead-free (1 - x)(Bi1/2Na1/2)TiO3-xBaTiO(3) doped with 1at.% Fe. The relaxor character of the un-poled material prevents macroscopic aging effects, while in the field-induced ferroelectric phase aging phenomena are similar to those found in lead zirconate titanate or barium titanate. Most prominent aging effects are the development of an internal bias field and the decrease of switchable polarization. These effects are temperature activated, and can be explained in the framework of defect complex reorientation. This picture is further supported by electron paramagnetic resonance spectra indicating the existence of (Fe-Ti'-V-O(center dot center dot))(center dot) defect complexes in the Fe-doped material. (C) 2014 AIP Publishing LLC.