Molecular Engineering of Push-Pull Porphyrin Dyes for Highly Efficient Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells: The Role of Benzene Spacers
Porphyrins have drawn much attention as sensitizers owing to the large absorption coefficients of their Soret and Q bands in the visible region. In a donor and acceptor zinc porphyrin we applied a new strategy of introducing 2,1,3-benzothiadiazole (BTD) as a pi-conjugated linker between the anchoring group and the porphyrin chromophore to broaden the absorption spectra to fill the valley between the Soret and Q bands. With this novel approach, we observed 12.75% power-conversion efficiency under simulated one-sun illumination (AM1.5G, 100 mW cm(-2)). In this study, we showed the importance of introducing the phenyl group as a spacer between the BTD and the zinc porphyrin in achieving high power-conversion efficiencies. Time-resolved fluorescence, transient-photocurrent-decay, and transient-photovoltage-decay measurements were employed to determine the electron-injection dynamics and the lifetime of the photogenerated charge carriers.