Efficient reduction of bromates using carbon nanofibre supported catalysts: Experimental and a comparative life cycle assessment study
Structured hierarchical catalysts were developed for efficient reduction of bromates in water. In the catalysts a small amount of active metal, 0.3 wt.% Pd, is supported onto carbon nanofibres grown either on sintered metal fibres or on a carbon cloth. In both cases high rates of reaction and high selectivity were achieved, allowing a significant reduction in the amount of catalyst required for the treatment of a set volumetric flow of polluted water, compared to a conventional Pd/Al2O3 catalyst. Manufacture of carbon nanofibres grown on a hierarchical structured support was scaled to 10 g batches. Cradle-to-gate life cycle assessment (LCA) study was performed to compare potential water treatment processes based on two catalyst types, and to identify the areas for future optimisation of the novel technology based on structured hierarchical catalysts.