Journal article

Non-perturbative modelling of energetic particle effects on resistive wall mode: Anisotropy and finite orbit width

A non-perturbative magnetohydrodynamic-kinetic hybrid formulation is developed and implemented into the MARS-K code [Liu et al. , Phys. Plasmas 15 , 112503 (2008)] that takes into account the anisotropy and asymmetry [Graves et al. ,Nature Commun. 3 , 624 (2012)] of the equilibrium distribution of energetic particles (EPs) in particle pitch angle space, as well as first order finite orbit width (FOW) corrections for both passing and trapped EPs. Anisotropic models, which affect both the adiabatic and non-adiabatic drift kinetic energy contributions, are implemented for both neutral beam injection and ion cyclotron resonant heating induced EPs. The first order FOW correction does not contribute to the precessional drift resonance of trapped particles, but generally remains finite for the bounce and transit resonance contributions, as well as for the adiabatic contributions from asymmetrically distributed passing particles. Numerical results for a 9MA steady state ITER plasma suggest that (i) both the anisotropy and FOW effects can be important for the resistive wall mode stability in ITER plasmas; and (ii) the non-perturbative approach predicts less kinetic stabilization of the mode, than the perturbative approach, in the presence of anisotropy and FOW effects for the EPs. The latter may partially be related to the modification of the eigenfunction of the mode by the drift kinetic effects.


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