Mono- and Bilayer WS2 Light-Emitting Transistors
We have realized ambipolar ionic liquid gated field-effect transistors based on WS2 mono- and bilayers, and investigated their opto-electronic response. A thorough characterization of the transport properties demonstrates the high quality of these devices for both electron and hole accumulation, which enables the quantitative determination of the band gap (Delta(IL) = 2.14 eV for monolayers and Delta(2L) = 1.82 eV for bilayers). It also enables the operation of the transistors in the ambipolar injection regime with electrons and holes injected simultaneously at the two opposite contacts of the devices in which we observe light emission from the FET channel. A quantitative analysis of the spectral properties of the emitted light, together with a comparison with the band gap values obtained from transport, show the internal consistency of our results and allow a quantitative estimate of the excitonic binding energies to be made. Our results demonstrate the power of ionic liquid gating in combination with nanoelectronic systems, as well as the compatibility of this technique with optical measurements on semiconducting transition metal dichalcogenides. These findings further open the way to the investigation of the optical properties of these systems in a carrier density range much broader than that explored until now.