Manipulating Bloch surface waves in 2D: a platform concept-based flat lens
At the end of the 1970s, it was confirmed that dielectric multilayers can sustain Bloch surface waves (BSWs). However, BSWs were not widely studied until more recently. Taking advantage of their high-quality factor, sensing applications have focused on BSWs. Thus far, no work has been performed to manipulate and control the natural surface propagations in terms of defined functions with two-dimensional (2D) components, targeting the realization of a 2D system. In this study, we demonstrate that 2D photonic components can be implemented by coating an in-plane shaped ultrathin (similar to lambda/15) polymer layer on the dielectric multilayer. The presence of the polymer modifies the local effective refractive index, enabling direct manipulation of the BSW. By locally shaping the geometries of the 2D components, the BSW can be deflected, diffracted, focused and coupled with 2D freedom. Enabling BSW manipulation in 2D, the dielectric multilayer can play a new role as a robust platform for 2D optics, which can pave the way for integration in photonic chips. Multiheterodyne near-field measurements are used to study light propagation through micro-and nano-optical components. We demonstrate that a lens-shaped polymer layer can be considered as a 2D component based on the agreement between near-field measurements and theoretical calculations. Both the focal shift and the resolution of a 2D BSW lens are measured for the first time. The proposed platform enables the design of 2D all-optical integrated systems, which have numerous potential applications, including molecular sensing and photonic circuits.