From food to physiology characterization and in vitro digestion of milk products and investigation of postprandial metabolism and inflammation after a high-fat meal intake in a human nutrition intervention study

According to the World Health Organization worldwide obesity has more than doubled since 1980. The World health statistics 2012 report shows that one in six adults is obese, one in ten diabetic and one in three has a raised blood pressure. Overweight and obesity are major risk factors for cardiovascular diseases,According to the World Health Organization worldwide obesity has more than doubled since 1980. The World health statistics 2012 report shows that one in six adults is obese, one in ten diabetic and one in three has a raised blood pressure. Overweight and obesity are major risk factors for cardiovascular diseases, diabetes and some cancers. The causes of overweight and obesity are mainly a decrease in physical activity and an increased intake of energy-dense foods leading to a positive energy balance. Not only dietary patterns play a major role in the development of obesity. Food composition also directly impacts on postprandial metabolism and inflammation and, in long term, may contribute to systemic low-grade inflammation, a characteristic associated with the obese state. Thus it is not surprising that there is a growing interest in better understanding the effect of different foods and food compounds on human metabolism and health. The aim of the NutriChip project is to develop a microfluidic chip device to screen foods and their compounds for health promoting, e.g. immune-modulatory, properties. Milk products have been chosen as a food model because their consumption has been shown to be associated with decreased levels of inflammatory markers (1), and also because technological and microbiological transformations allow the realization of various products, such as yoghurt and cheese, having potentially different physiological effects. This thesis covers the biochemical (products characterization and in vitro digestion) and physiological (human nutrition study) aspects of the NutriChip project. Initially, differently heat-treated and fermented milk products were characterized by a proteomic approach. Various fractionation methods were used for selectively enriching minor milk and bacterial proteins in different dairy products. Proteins were separated and identified by two dimensional (2D) gel-electrophoresis and liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) analysis. All data are collected in an interactive platform, called protein atlas, which is now publicly available on http://www.foodle.ch/de/proteinstart. Currently, the database contains more than 200 different milk proteins and about 250 bacterial proteins. For a better in depth characterization of fermented products, a method for the enrichment of living bacterial cells has been developed. This method allows the investigation of bacterial proteomes under different fermentation conditions. The method was used to monitor the adaption of the yoghurt bacteria Lactobacillus bulgaricus and Streptococcus thermophilus during milk fermentation. Some well-known stress response proteins (chaperone proteins GroEL and DnaK) and various enzymes involved in the glycolysis pathway have been identified as a proof of concept. Another experiment aimed to investigate the bacterial proteome during cheese production with special regards towards the identification of enzymes involved in the formation of the cheese flavor compound 3-methylbutanal. An aminotransferase that catalyzes the first step in the conversion pathway from the amino acid leucine to the flavor compound 3-methylbutanal could be identified. A prerequisite for screening foods for health-modulating activity was the development of a static, three-step in vitro digestion model. The aim was to keep the model as physiological as possible and ideally perform the digestion on a small scale (volume < 15 mL). The digestion model has been thoroughly validated using pasteurized whole milk. The degradation of fat, carbohydrates and proteins into their basic constituents was consistent with human physiological values found in the literature. The system has been used to digest various milk products. With the two proteins α-s1-casein and β-lactoglobulin, a representative of the caseins and whey proteins, respectively, the influence of the fat content, heat treatment and fermentation of the products on their digestibility has been monitored. Particularly we also looked at the generation of bioactive peptides during the digestion process. Towards this aim, the identified peptides in the digestion experiments were compared with bioactive peptide sequences from the literature using the statistic program R. Over 50 milk protein-derived peptides containing bioactive peptide sequences, with e.g. antihypertensive, immune- and cyto-modulatory, opioid functions, could be identified. The next step in simulating the human digestive system is the intestinal transport. Therefore, a cell culture model mimicking the last step of digestion and final absorption of the nutrients, both steps being mediated by intestinal enterocytes, was established. For this aim, Caco-2 cells were used in a Transwell system with an upper and lower compartment containing cell culture medium. Digested milk products were added on top of the Caco-2 cell monolayer and medium was collected from the basolateral chamber for identification of transported, potential bioactive peptides. The final validation of the in vitro models needs the comparison with a human nutrition intervention study. We designed and conducted a dose-response intervention study to determine the caloric dose (500 kcal, 1’000 kcal, 1’500 kcal) of a high-fat meal needed to induce a postprandial metabolic and inflammatory response in normal weight and obese subjects. In our study, we investigated postprandial metabolism and inflammation by measuring classical clinical parameters such as glucose, insulin and triglycerides, as well as the inflammation markers C-reactive protein (CRP), interleukine-6 (IL-6) and endotoxin before and at various time points after the test meals consumption. Our study provided valuable clinical, mechanistic, and methodological insights into the metabolic response of subjects, varying in their metabolic health status, to increasing doses of a high-fat meal. This represents the basis for future studies aiming to investigate health-promoting properties of foods in general, as also their capability in lowering postprandial inflammation, a normal response mechanism after food ingestion. v diabetes and some cancers. The causes of overweight and obesity are mainly a decrease in physical activity and an increased intake of energy-dense foods leading to a positive energy balance. Not only dietary patterns play a major role in the development of obesity. Food composition also directly impacts on postprandial metabolism and inflammation and, in long term, may contribute to systemic low-grade inflammation, a characteristic associated with the obese state. Thus it is not surprising that there is a growing interest in better understanding the effect of different foods and food compounds on human metabolism and health. The aim of the NutriChip project is to develop a microfluidic chip device to screen foods and their compounds for health promoting, e.g. immune-modulatory, properties. Milk products have been chosen as a food model because their consumption has been shown to be associated with decreased levels of inflammatory markers (1), and also because technological and microbiological transformations allow the realization of various products, such as yoghurt and cheese, having potentially different physiological effects. This thesis covers the biochemical (products characterization and in vitro digestion) and physiological (human nutrition study) aspects of the NutriChip project. Initially, differently heat-treated and fermented milk products were characterized by a proteomic approach. Various fractionation methods were used for selectively enriching minor milk and bacterial proteins in different dairy products. Proteins were separated and identified by two dimensional (2D) gel-electrophoresis and liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) analysis. All data are collected in an interactive platform, called protein atlas, which is now publicly available on http://www.foodle.ch/de/proteinstart. Currently, the database contains more than 200 different milk proteins and about 250 bacterial proteins. For a better in depth characterization of fermented products, a method for the enrichment of living bacterial cells has been developed. This method allows the investigation of bacterial proteomes under different fermentation conditions. The method was used to monitor the adaption of the yoghurt bacteria Lactobacillus bulgaricus and Streptococcus thermophilus during milk fermentation. Some well- known stress response proteins (chaperone proteins GroEL and DnaK) and various enzymes involved in the glycolysis pathway have been identified as a proof of concept. Another experiment aimed to investigate the bacterial proteome during cheese production with special regards towards the identification of enzymes involved in the formation of the cheese flavor compound 3-methylbutanal. An aminotransferase that catalyzes the first step in the conversion pathway from the amino acid leucine to the flavor compound 3-methylbutanal could be identified. v A prerequisite for screening foods for health-modulating activity was the development of a static, three-step in vitro digestion model. The aim was to keep the model as physiological as possible and ideally perform the digestion on a small scale (volume < 15 mL). The digestion model has been thoroughly validated using pasteurized whole milk. The degradation of fat, carbohydrates and proteins into their basic constituents was consistent with human physiological values found in the literature. The system has been used to digest various milk products. With the two proteins α-s1-casein and β-lactoglobulin, a representative of the caseins and whey proteins, respectively, the influence of the fat content, heat treatment and fermentation of the products on their digestibility has been monitored. Particularly we also looked at the generation of bioactive peptides during the digestion process. Towards this aim, the identified peptides in the digestion experiments were compared with bioactive peptide sequences from the literature using the statistic program R. Over 50 milk protein-derived peptides containing bioactive peptide sequences, with e.g. antihypertensive, immune- and cyto-modulatory, opioid functions, could be identified. The next step in simulating the human digestive system is the intestinal transport. Therefore, a cell culture model mimicking the last step of digestion and final absorption of the nutrients, both steps being mediated by intestinal enterocytes, was established. For this aim, Caco-2 cells were used in a Transwell system with an upper and lower compartment containing cell culture medium. Digested milk products were added on top of the Caco-2 cell monolayer and medium was collected from the basolateral chamber for identification of transported, potential bioactive peptides. The final validation of the in vitro models needs the comparison with a human nutrition intervention study. We designed and conducted a dose-response intervention study to determine the caloric dose (500 kcal, 1’000 kcal, 1’500 kcal) of a high-fat meal needed to induce a postprandial metabolic and inflammatory response in normal weight and obese subjects. In our study, we investigated postprandial metabolism and inflammation by measuring classical clinical parameters such as glucose, insulin and triglycerides, as well as the inflammation markers C-reactive protein (CRP), interleukine-6 (IL-6) and endotoxin before and at various time points after the test meals consumption. Our study provided valuable clinical, mechanistic, and methodological insights into the metabolic response of subjects, varying in their metabolic health status, to increasing doses of a high-fat meal. This represents the basis for future studies aiming to investigate health- promoting properties of foods in general, as also their capability in lowering postprandial inflammation, a normal response mechanism after food ingestion.


Advisor(s):
Gijs, Martinus
Portmann, Reto
Year:
2013
Publisher:
Lausanne, EPFL
Keywords:
Other identifiers:
urn: urn:nbn:ch:bel-epfl-thesis5915-4
Laboratories:


Note: The status of this file is: EPFL only


 Record created 2014-02-12, last modified 2020-04-20

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