Tissue characterization by time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy of endogenous and exogenous fluorochromes: apparatus design and preliminary results
The biomedical use of an optical fiber-based spectro- temporal fluorometer that can endoscopically record the fluorescence decay of an entire spectrum without scanning is presented. The detector consists of a streak camera coupled to a spectrograph. A mode-locked argon ion pumped dye laser or a nitrogen laser-pumped dye laser are used as pulsed excitation light sources. We measured the fluorescence decays of endogenous fluorophores and of ALA-induced- protoporphyrin IX(PPIX) in an excised human bladder with a carcinoma in situ (CIS). Each autofluorescence decay can be decomposed in at least three exponential components for all tissue samples investigated if the excitation is at 425 nm. The decays of the autofluorescence of all normal sites of the human bladder are similar and they differ significantly from the decays measured on the CIS and the necrotic tissue. The fluorescence of the ALA-induced PPIX in the bladder is monoexponential with a lifetime of 15 (plus or minus 1) ns and this fluorescence lifetime does not change significantly between the normal urothelium and the CIS. A photoproduct of ALA-PPIX with a fluorescence maximum at 670 nm and a lifetime of 8 (plus or minus 1) ns was observed. The measurement of the decay of the autofluorescence allowed to correctly identify a normal tissue site that was classified as abnormal by the measurement of the ALA-PPIX fluorescence intensity.
Record created on 2014-02-06, modified on 2016-08-09