An experimental and computational analysis of primary cilia deflection under fluid flow
In this study we have developed a novel model of the deflection of primary cilia experiencing fluid flow accounting for phenomena not previously considered. Specifically, we developed a large rotation formulation that accounts for rotation at the base of the cilium, the initial shape of the cilium and fluid drag at high deflection angles. We utilised this model to analyse full 3D data-sets of primary cilia deflecting under fluid flow acquired with high-speed confocal microscopy. We found a wide variety of previously unreported bending shapes and behaviours. We also analysed post-flow relaxation patterns. Results from our combined experimental and theoretical approach suggest that the average flexural rigidity of primary cilia might be higher than previously reported (Schwartz et al. 1997, Am J Physiol. 272(1 Pt 2):F132-F138). In addition our findings indicate that the mechanics of primary cilia are richly varied and mechanisms may exist to alter their mechanical behaviour.