Journal article

Motion-Based Counter-Measures to Photo Attacks in Face Recognition

Identity spoofing is a contender for high-security face recognition applications. With the advent of social media and globalized search, our face images and videos are wide-spread on the internet and can be potentially used to attack biometric systems without previous user consent. Yet, research to counter these threats is just on its infancy – we lack public standard databases, protocols to measure spoofing vulnerability and baseline methods to detect these attacks. The contributions of this work to the area are three-fold: firstly we introduce a publicly available PHOTO-ATTACK database with associated protocols to measure the effectiveness of counter-measures. Based on the data available, we conduct a study on current state-of-the-art spoofing detection algorithms based on motion analysis, showing they fail under the light of these new dataset. By last, we propose a new technique of counter-measure solely based on foreground/background motion correlation using Optical Flow that outperforms all other algorithms achieving nearly perfect scoring with an equal-error rate of 1.52% on the available test data. The source code leading to the reported results is made available for the replicability of findings in this article.

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