Nanoindentation cracking in gallium arsenide: Part I. In situ SEM nanoindentation
The nanoindentation fracture behavior of gallium arsenide (GaAs) is examined from two perspectives in two parent papers. The first paper (part I) focuses on in situ nanoindentation within a scanning electron microscope (SEM) and on fractographic observations of cleaved cross-sections of indented regions to investigate the crack field under various indenter geometries. In the second parent paper (part II), cathodoluminescence and transmission electron microscopy are used to investigate the relationship between dislocation and crack fields. The combination of instrumented in situ scanning electron microscopy nanoindentations and cleavage cross-sectioning allows us to establish a detailed map of cracking in the indented region and cracking kinetics for conical and wedge indenter shapes. For wedge nanoindentations, the evolution of the half-penny crack size with the indentation load is interpreted using a simple linear elastic fracture model based on weight functions. Fracture toughness estimates obtained by this technique fall within the range of usual values quoted for GaAs.