Weighted Averages and Double Exponential Algorithms
This paper reviews two simple numerical algorithms particularly useful in Computational ElectroMagnetics (CEM): the Weighted Averages (WA) algorithm and the Double Exponential (DE) quadrature. After a short historical introduction and an elementary description of the mathematical procedures underlying both techniques, they are applied to the evaluation of Sommerfeld integrals, where WA and DE combine together to provide a numerical tool of unprecedented quality. It is also shown that both algorithms have a much wider range of applications. A generalization of the WA algorithm, able to cope with integrands including products of Bessel and similar oscillatory functions, is described. Similarly, the original DE algorithm is adapted with exceptional results to the evaluation of the multidimensional singular integrals arising in the discretization of Integral-Equation based CEM formulations. The new possibilities of WA and DE algorithms are demonstrated through several practical numerical examples.