Visual and Force Feedback Time-Delays Change Telepresence: Quantitative Evidence from Crossmodal Congruecy Task
In the field of surgical robotics, it is difficult to find objective assessment techniques for evaluating telepresence. In this study we try to merge the concepts from cognitive neuroscience more specifically from the field of tool incorporation (embodiment) into surgical robotics in order to assess quantitatively the affect of delayed feedback on the telepresence. Hence, this study investigates the relationship between tool-incorporation (in this case the haptic device of the surgical console) and the decrease of performance due to time delays. A cognitive neuroscience method called the crossmodal congruency effect (CCE) is used to measure the level of tool incorporation and thus indirectly the level of telepresence while performing a simulated surgical-like task. The result of this study shows that user telepresence level and performance measures decrease with increasing delayed visual and haptic feedback.