Estimation of A-type Piano Key weir rating curve
The Piano Key weir (PKW) is a hydraulically attractive alternative to linear overflow weirs, increasing the unit discharge for similar heads and spillway widths. This advantage allows operating dam reservoirs on an increased level and provides thereby an enhanced retention volume. It is a result of the non-linear nature of PKWs being folded back and forth to make repeating cycles or keys. As PKWs are relatively novel structures, only few design equations are available, so that normally physical model tests of prototypes have to be conducted assuring and optimizing their hydraulic characteristics. Nevertheless, first comprehensive and systematic model test series were conducted in several laboratories. Based on such a test series, a general design equation for A-type PKWs is proposed and discussed. Considering furthermore data of other laboratory studies, the latter is validated. It turned out that main and secondary parameters exist regarding the relative effect on the rating curve. The main parameters having a significant effect on the capacity are the relative developed crest length and the relative head. The secondary parameters of small but not negligible effect comprise the ratio of the inlet and outlet key widths, the ratio of the inlet and outlet key heights, the relative overhang lengths, and the relative height of the parapet walls.