Global gyrokinetic simulations of TEM microturbulence
Global gyrokinetic simulations of electrostatic temperature-gradient-driven trapped-electron-mode (TEM) turbulence using the delta f particle-in-cell code ORB5 are presented. The electron response is either fully kinetic or hybrid, i.e. considering kinetic trapped and adiabatic passing electrons. A linear benchmark in the TEM regime against the Eulerian-based code GENE is presented. Two different methods for controlling the numerical noise, based, respectively, on a Krook operator and a so-called coarse-graining approach, are discussed and successfully compared. Both linear and non-linear studies are carried out for addressing the issue of finite-rho*-effects and finite electron collisionality on TEM turbulence. Electron collisions are found to damp TEMs through the detrapping process, while finite-rho*-effects turn out to be important in the non-linear regime but very small in the linear regime. Finally, the effects of zonal flows on TEM turbulence are briefly considered as well and shown to be unimportant in the temperature-gradient-driven TEM regime. Consistently, basically no difference is found between linear and non-linear critical electron temperature gradients in the TEM regime.