Optimization and Stabilization of Electrodeposited Cu2ZnSnS4 Photocathodes for Solar Water Reduction
Cu2ZnSnS4 (CZTS) is a promising p-type semiconductor that has not yet been extensively investigated for solar fuel production via water splitting. Here, we optimize and compare two different electrodeposition routes (simultaneous and sequential) for preparing CZTS electrodes. More consistent results are observed with the simultaneous route. In addition, the effect of etching and the presence of a CdS buffer layer on the photocurrent are investigated. Finally, we demonstrate for the first time the stabilization of these electrodes using protecting overlayers deposited by atomic layer deposition (ALD). Our best performing protected electrodes (Mo/CZTS/CdS/AZO/TiO2/Pt) exhibited a photocurrent of over 1 mA cm(-2) under standard one sun illumination conditions and a significant improvement in stability over unprotected electrodes.