Oxygen Distribution of Fluorine-doped Tin Oxide Films Coated on Float Glass along Depth Before and After Heat Treatment
Fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) films were deposited on float glass to create low-emissivity glass (low-E glass) by atmospheric pressure chemical vapor deposition (APCVD). Heat treatments were carried out to assess its antioxidant properties. The surface morphology, crystal structure, and the oxygen and tin concentrations in the FTO films were investigated by scanning electron microscope (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Auger electron spectrometer (AES), and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), respectively. The results indicated that the electrical properties determined by the four-point probe method remained constant up to 600 degrees C with increasing temperature. The FTO films exhibited nonstoichiometry with a ratio of [O]/[Sn] >2 on the top surface and <2 in the film. The sheet resistance of the film strongly depended on the oxygen concentration on the film surface. When the heating temperature reached 700 degrees C, the sheet resistance increased rapidly from 9.4 to 86.7 Omega/square with a concomitant increase in the oxygen concentration on the top surface.