Advances in the development of new tuberculosis drugs and treatment regimens
Despite the introduction 40 years ago of the inexpensive and effective four-drug (isoniazid, rifampicin, pyrazinamide and ethambutol) treatment regimen, tuberculosis (TB) continues to cause considerable morbidity and mortality worldwide. For the first time since the 1960s, new and novel drugs and regimens for all forms of TB are emerging. Such regimens are likely to utilize both repurposed drugs and new chemical entities, and several of these regimens are now progressing through clinical trials. This article covers current concepts and recent advances in TB drug discovery and development, including an update of ongoing TB treatment trials, newer clinical trial designs, TB biomarkers and adjunct host-directed therapies.