Passive sampling of perfluorinated chemicals in water: Flow rate effects on chemical uptake
A recently developed modified polar organic chemical integrative sampler (POCIS) provides a means for monitoring perfluorinated chemicals (PFCs) in water. However, changes in external flow rates may alter POCIS sampling behaviour and consequently affect estimated water concentrations of analytes. In this work, uptake kinetics of selected PFCs, over 15 days, were investigated. A flow-through channel system was employed with spiked river water at flow rates between 0.02 and 0.34 m s(-1). PFC sampling rates (R-s) (0.09-0.29 L d(-1) depending on analyte and flow rate) increased from the lowest to highest flow rate employed for some PFCs (MW <= 464) but not for others (MW >= 500). R-s's for some of these smaller PFCs were increasingly less sensitive to flow rate as this increased within the range investigated. This device shows promise as a sampling tool to support monitoring efforts for PFCs in a range of flow rate conditions. (c) 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.