Effects of surface oxide formation on germanium nanowire band-edge photoluminescence
The effect of intentional surface oxide formation on band-edge photoluminescence (PL) of Ge nanowires was investigated. Thermal oxidation in molecular O-2 was used to produce a surface oxide layer on assemblies of single crystal nanowires grown by the vapor-liquid-solid method. With increasing oxidation of the wires, the band-edge PL associated with the indirect gap transition becomes more intense. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy confirms the formation of an increasingly GeO2-like surface oxide under annealing conditions that enhance the indirect-gap PL, consistent with surface oxide passivation of nonradiative recombination centers initially present on the nanowire surface. (C) 2013 AIP Publishing LLC.