Infoscience

Journal article

Study of Raman amplification in DPP-BOTDA sensing employing Simplex coding for sub-meter scale spatial resolution over long fiber distances

The impact of Raman amplification and Simplex coding is studied in combination with differential pulse-width pair Brillouin optical time-domain analysis (DPP-BOTDA) to achieve sub-meter spatial resolution over very long sensing distances. An optimization of the power levels for the Raman pumps, Brillouin pump and signal has been carried out through numerical simulations, maximizing the signal levels and avoiding at the same time nonlinear effects and pump depletion. A reduction of acoustic-wave-induced distortions in the Brillouin gain spectrum down to negligible levels has also been achieved by numerical optimization of the pulse width and duty cycle of return-to-zero Simplex coding, providing significant signal-to-noise ratio enhancement. Strain–temperature sensing over 93 km standard SMF is achieved with a strain/temperature accuracy of 34με/1.7 ◦C, and 50 cm spatial resolution throughout the fiber length.

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