000186458 001__ 186458
000186458 005__ 20181203023126.0
000186458 0247_ $$2doi$$a10.1109/Jsen.2012.2237548
000186458 022__ $$a1530-437X
000186458 02470 $$2ISI$$a000317003900017
000186458 037__ $$aARTICLE
000186458 245__ $$aCMOS Demodulation Image Sensor for Nanosecond Optical Waveform Analysis
000186458 260__ $$bInstitute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers$$c2013$$aPiscataway
000186458 269__ $$a2013
000186458 300__ $$a11
000186458 336__ $$aJournal Articles
000186458 520__ $$aAn image sensor with 256 x 256 pixels and a pitch of 6.3 mu m, suitable for resolving ultrashort optical phenomena, is developed. It is based on a standard CMOS process with pinned photodiode option. The pixel comprises three transfer gates to allow versatile sensor operation whereas repetitive exposure and integration are used to increase the lowest signal level that can be detected. The image sensor is fully functional and demonstrates the ability to demodulate signals in the time-domain with contrast higher than 92% up to 100 MHz. Algorithms for fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy and three-dimensional time-of-flight imaging are proposed. They allow measurements to be insensitive to background light, subsurface leakage, dark current leakage, and subthreshold leakage of the transfer gates. Lifetimes of free quantum dots are resolved using time-domain demodulation. Range imaging is also shown to be possible with frequency-domain demodulation although background light cannot be suppressed efficiently in the present implementation of the image sensor due to the limited full well capacity.
000186458 6531_ $$aBuried photodiode
000186458 6531_ $$aCMOS imager
000186458 6531_ $$aFLS
000186458 6531_ $$aFLIM
000186458 6531_ $$afluorescence decay
000186458 6531_ $$afluorescence lifetime
000186458 6531_ $$aimage sensor
000186458 6531_ $$aphosphorescence lifetime
000186458 6531_ $$apinned photodiode
000186458 6531_ $$atime-of-flight
000186458 6531_ $$aTOF
000186458 6531_ $$atriplet state
000186458 700__ $$uSwiss Ctr Elect & Microtechnol CSEM SA, CH-8002 Zurich, Switzerland$$aBonjour, Lysandre-Edouard
000186458 700__ $$uSwiss Ctr Elect & Microtechnol CSEM SA, CH-8002 Zurich, Switzerland$$aBeyeler, David
000186458 700__ $$uSwiss Ctr Elect & Microtechnol CSEM SA, CH-8002 Zurich, Switzerland$$aBlanc, Nicolas
000186458 700__ $$g105540$$aKayal, Maher$$0240539
000186458 773__ $$j13$$tIeee Sensors Journal$$k5$$q1487-1497
000186458 909C0 $$xU11978$$0252315$$pELAB
000186458 909CO $$pSTI$$particle$$ooai:infoscience.tind.io:186458
000186458 917Z8 $$x105540
000186458 937__ $$aEPFL-ARTICLE-186458
000186458 973__ $$rREVIEWED$$sPUBLISHED$$aEPFL
000186458 980__ $$aARTICLE