Three-dimensional Super-resolution Optical Fluctuation Imaging
Super-resolution optical fluctuation imaging (SOFI) achieves three-dimensional super-resolution by computing higher-order spatio-temporal cross-cumulants of stochastically blink-ing fluorophores. In contrast to localization microscopy, SOFI is compatible with weakly emitting fluorophores and a wider range of blinking conditions. The main drawback of SOFI is the nonlinear response to brightness and blinking heterogeneities in the sample, which limits the use of higher cumulant orders. We present a balanced SOFI algorithm for mapping molecular parameters and for linearizing the brightness response and we outline a MATLAB toolbox for two- and three-dimensional SOFI analysis. We show super-resolved three-dimensional cell structures imaged with a multi-plane wide-field microscope. The simultaneous acqui-sition of several focal planes significantly reduces the acquisition time and helps limiting the photo-bleaching of the marker fluorophores.