000185357 001__ 185357
000185357 005__ 20190316235618.0
000185357 0247_ $$2doi$$a10.1523/Jneurosci.2722-12.2013
000185357 022__ $$a0270-6474
000185357 02470 $$2ISI$$a000314887200027
000185357 037__ $$aARTICLE
000185357 245__ $$aChanges in the Spinal Segmental Motor Output for Stepping during Development from Infant to Adult
000185357 269__ $$a2013
000185357 260__ $$bSociety for Neuroscience$$c2013$$aWashington
000185357 300__ $$a13
000185357 336__ $$aJournal Articles
000185357 520__ $$aHuman stepping movements emerge in utero and show several milestones during development to independent walking. Recently, imaging has become an essential tool for investigating the development and function of pattern generation networks in the spinal cord. Here we examine the development of the spinal segmental output by mapping the distribution of motoneuron activity in the lumbosacral spinal cord during stepping in newborns, toddlers, preschoolers, and adults. Newborn stepping is characterized by an alternating bilateral motor output with only two major components that are active at all lumbosacral levels of the spinal cord. This feature was similar across different cycle durations of neonate stepping. The alternating spinal motor output is consistent with a simpler organization of neuronal networks in neonates. Furthermore, a remarkable feature of newborn stepping is a higher overall activation of lumbar versus sacral segments, consistent with a rostrocaudal excitability gradient. In toddlers, the stance-related motor pool activity migrates to the sacral cord segments, while the lumbar motoneurons are separately activated at touchdown. In the adult, the lumbar and sacral patterns become more dissociated with shorter activation times. We conclude that the development of human locomotion from the neonate to the adult starts from a rostrocaudal excitability gradient and involves a gradual functional reorganization of the pattern generation circuitry.
000185357 700__ $$uIRCCS Santa Lucia Fdn, Lab Neuromotor Physiol, I-00179 Rome, Italy$$aIvanenko, Yuri P.
000185357 700__ $$0246288$$g226403$$uIRCCS Santa Lucia Fdn, Lab Neuromotor Physiol, I-00179 Rome, Italy$$aDominici, Nadia
000185357 700__ $$uIRCCS Santa Lucia Fdn, Lab Neuromotor Physiol, I-00179 Rome, Italy$$aCappellini, Germana
000185357 700__ $$uUniv Roma Tor Vergata, Dept Syst Med, I-00133 Rome, Italy$$aDi Paolo, Ambrogio
000185357 700__ $$uSt Eugenio Hosp, Neonatol Unit, I-00144 Rome, Italy$$aGiannini, Carlo
000185357 700__ $$aPoppele, Richard E.
000185357 700__ $$aLacquaniti, Francesco$$uIRCCS Santa Lucia Fdn, Lab Neuromotor Physiol, I-00179 Rome, Italy
000185357 773__ $$j33$$tJournal Of Neuroscience$$k7$$q3025-+
000185357 8564_ $$uhttps://infoscience.epfl.ch/record/185357/files/Ivanenko%20et%20al%202013.pdf$$zn/a$$s5642540$$yn/a
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000185357 937__ $$aEPFL-ARTICLE-185357
000185357 973__ $$rREVIEWED$$sPUBLISHED$$aEPFL
000185357 980__ $$aARTICLE