Time-frequency analysis of long fiber Bragg gratings with low reflectivity
A new technique to investigate the spatial distribution of the reflection spectrum along fabricated long weak fiber Bragg gratings (FBG) is experimentally demonstrated, together with its potential applications for distributed fiber sensing and broadband signal processing. A short pulsed coherent light signal is launched into a FBG and the signal frequency is scanned through the FBG reflection spectrum. When the pulse duration is set much shorter than the transit time through the grating a time-resolved reflected signal can be obtained for each signal frequency. It informs about the distribution of the refractive index periodic perturbation along the entire FBG length, hence the uniformity or frequency chirp information of the fabricated FBG. This technique has been implemented to demonstrate a distributed temperature sensing system with high spatial resolution and to also realize a robust all-fiber tunable delay line for broadband signals.